Naval or Marine Architect

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Marine Surveyor

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Clerical or OrganisingPractical or MechanicalAnalytic or ScientificSkill Level 5Skill Level 6

Marine or naval architects are qualified engineers who design and oversee the construction and repair of marine craft and floating structures. This includes commercial and military ships, warships, boats, submarines, passenger and cargo ships, cruise liners, high-speed ferries and catamarans, tugs, yachts and offshore oil rigs. Future Growth Strong

Naval architects design and oversee the construction, survey and repair of marine craft and floating structures, including naval craft, passenger and cargo ships, submarines, high-speed ferries and catamarans, tugs, boats, yachts and oil rigs. They focus on the form, arrangement and stability of marine structures and their movement through water.

Naval architects manage and take responsibility for the activities of a team to ensure that a safe, environmentally sound and seaworthy design is produced.

ANZSCO ID: 233916

Specialisations: Naval architects may specialise in structure and design, management, cost calculations, manufacturing processes, research, mechanical practices, hydrodynamics and hydrostatics, stability, propulsion or systems engineering.

Alternative names: Marine Architect

Knowledge, skills and attributes  

To become a naval architect, you would need:

  • interested in the marine environment
  • maths, physics and wide-ranging engineering knowledge and aptitude
  • enjoy technical and engineering activities
  • practical problem solving skills
  • well-developed computer aided design (CAD) skills
  • practical and creative ability
  • the ability to work effectively with a wide range of other professionals
  • able to work independently or as part of a team
  • a logical and enquiring mind
  • sound judgement
  • able to accept responsibility
  • a strong appreciation of risk and safety issues
  • good communication skills.

At work
Bart de Haan, Director of Operations and Nick Tot, Naval Architect at the Dutch studio, Diana Yacht Design.
(Source: SuperYachtTimes)

Duties and Tasks

  • Engages in research and development work specialising in design and construction of ships and other vessels.
  • Consults with specialists to co-ordinate design of vessel.
  • Carries out surveys of ships’ hulls, superstructures and equipment, and measures ships for tonnage and freeboard.
  • Conducts investigations into such matters as structural faults and losses due to capsize, on behalf of parties involved in litigation.
  • Designs yachts and other small vessels
  • Design ships and boats, and other marine craft
  • Design floating structures such as offshore oil platforms
  • Prepare design plans using computer software
  • Prepare preliminary designs by consulting with clients such as ship owners, ship builders, shipping organisations and maritime research institutes
  • Estimate the initial vessel construction costs and lifetime running costs of a vessel
  • Determine the most suitable type and size for a vessel and ensure proposed designs meet performance and cost requirements
  • Determine the proportions and shape of the hull (body) of the vessel
  • Design accommodation and cargo areas
  • Make calculations relating to the structural and mechanical aspects of design, construction and repair
  • Make calculations relating to the stability of the vessel and prepare the stability book to go on board the vessel to be used by the master and officers
  • Supervise other people who prepare detailed designs, specifications and building contracts
  • Coordinate the work of other engineers
  • Obtain plan approval and supervise construction work
  • Plan, supervise and evaluate dockside and sea trials of the vessel
  • Survey vessels
  • Organise repairs and modifications to vessels
  • Research efficient ways for vessels to move through water
  • Provide risk assessment and claims management for insurance
  • Use complex mathematical and physical models to ensure the design is technically sound
  • Ensure designs comply with safety regulations and are seaworthy
  • Plan the building process, from concept through to delivery of the final product
  • Coordinate the work of engineering design teams
  • Undertake risk analysis of ships and marine structures
  • Coordinate repair work on vessels or floating structures.

At Work
Naval Architect at work
(Source: Marine Knowledge)

Working conditions

In a full-time role, you would usually work a standard number of hours per week. If you were working on the construction or repair of structures such as offshore oil platforms, you may work a greater number of hours over weeks or months, followed by longer periods of time on shore leave.

A naval architect usually works from an office when designing or drawing, although some time may be spent on-site in shipyards, or onboard ships for sea trials in various weather conditions. Naval architects can work for shipyards, design firms and consultancies, naval classification societies, boat and ship repair companies, oil and gas engineering companies or the Australian Defence Force.

Most naval architects would work in an office environment, or in facilities such as ship building yards. You might also spend some time on board vessels for sea trials, or on offshore oil rigs. You may experience poor weather and rough seas.

Tools and technologies

Naval architects use drawing and measuring instruments and materials, as well as computer-aided design (CAD) and engineering software packages. They may also use a variety of stands and equipment for making and displaying three-dimensional models of their designs. Naval architects may also supervise emergency underwater repair work on offshore vessels that cannot dock. They may develop and design underwater technology such as computerised buoys and underwater welding and drilling equipment, and underwater robots.

Education and training/entrance requirements

You need a bachelor degree in engineering majoring in naval architecture to work as a Naval Architect. Postgraduate studies may also be useful. A number of universities in Australia offer degrees in engineering with a major in naval architecture.

To get into these courses you usually need to gain your senior secondary school certificate or equivalent. Mathematics, physics and chemistry would be appropriate subjects to study prior to university.

The special area of practice of Naval Architecture is the responsibility of the Joint Board for Naval Architecture, formed by Engineers Australia and the Royal Institution of Naval Architects (RINA). A Competency Panel, appointed by the Joint Board, is responsible for setting the standards for assessment and audits.

Additional Information

Students and graduates can apply for membership of Engineers Australia, and the Royal Institution of Naval Architects (RINA). RINA offers student membership, as well as information and guidance on how to become a chartered professional naval architect.

Employment Opportunities

Employment of marine or naval architects is projected to grow about as fast as the average for all occupations. The need to design ships and systems to transport energy products, such as liquefied natural gas, across the globe will help to spur employment growth for this occupation.

Naval architects can be employed in naval architecture consultancies, shipyards, international ship classification societies, boat and shipbuilding firms, boat and ship repair and maintenance companies, port and harbour authorities, shipping lines and offshore engineering oil and gas companies.

Opportunities may also exist with mining companies engaged in offshore exploration and manufacturers of marine auxiliary machinery, navigational aids and communications equipment.

Did You Know?

Shipbuilding has been a significant industrial activity in Tasmania since the early colonial period. It flourished through the need for vessels to carry the greater part of commerce around the Tasmanian coast, interstate and overseas. Most of the vessels have been built between Hobart and the Huon in southern Tasmania, due to the availability of timber in the southern forests and the sheltered waterways.

“The British were not only attracted to Van Diemen’s Land because of its suitability as an island penal colony fortress, but, because it had an abundance of timbers such as the famous Huon, King Billy and celery top pines,” says Paul Cullen, the long-time director of Hobart’s biennial Wooden Boat Festival.

As Paul explains, the UK had a shortage of suitable boat building timber and the Huon had an a­bundance, locked up for thousands of years. So it made sense to send a few thousand convicts there to help the logging.

Gordon River Tasmania
Gordon River Tasmania
(Source: AustralianWoodWork)


Huon Pine only grows in the wet, temperate rainforests of South West Tasmania – on the whole planet! ‘Lagarostrobus franklinii’ (its proper name) is not actually a pine and is the only member of its family, so a pretty unique tree which grows extremely slowly, averaging just 1 millimetre in girth per year. They can grow to be 2,500 years old which means some of them started life BC! Add to this the fact that they do not start to reproduce until 600 to 800 years of age and you have a very special tree whose timber also has remarkable properties. The timber has a very high oil content, methyl eugenol to be precise, which renders it impervious to insects, waterproof, and imbues it with its characteristic sappy perfume. The high oil content also means the timber can be bent, shaped, worked and sculpted without splitting and finishes to a superb, fine lustre. Pale straw coloured when first cut, it ages to a rich honey gold.

A Little Bit Of History
The early settlers discovered the remarkable properties of Huon Pine and saw its potential for boat building, resistant as it was to those perennial problems of the boat builder, marine borer and screw worm. It turned out to be the best boat building timber in the world and was exploited heavily in the early days, driving a huge industry based on this ‘green gold’.
Interestingly, concern for the future of these venerable giants started early in the last century – even back then it was apparent that there would be no next generation of trees to be had, their slow growth precluding the possibility of plantation farms.

The felling of green Huon Pines stopped completely in the 1970’s after a consensus that it was neither sustainable nor prudent to cut down trees that were 1000 years old. However, a careful stockpiling operation was begun when trees were felled and collected prior to the flooding of several valleys to create dams for hydro electric schemes. For decades these logs were tied into huge rafts and left to float unperturbed on the water until needed. The stockpile created when Lake Gordon was flooded in 1972 still supplies the majority of logs released for use each year.

The retrieval of stumps left over from old logging is another source of salvage timber and led to the discovery of tons of ancient buried Huon pine logs, some dated at 38,000 years old and still intact despite being buried in the damp earth all that time.

Huon logs
(Source: AustralianWoodWork)

Who Controls The Stocks?
85% of remaining Huon Pine forests are conserved in National Parks while 15% is managed by Forestry Tasmania for salvage. Forestry Tasmania controls and surveys ALL salvage/harvest sites and only 3 sawmills are licensed to process logs.

Is It Sustainable?
Because of the strict control by Forestry Tasmania and the granting of only 3 licenses to cut Huon pine sawlog, it is estimated that the supplies of salvaged dead timber will last for another 2 generations. After that these ancient giants in the remaining forests will be left in peace to carry on long after we have gone – we hope that future governments adhere to this policy, and now is the moment to say “hats off to Bob Brown” for all he and his supporters did to protect the remaining forests and wild rivers of South West Tasmania.

What Is Huon Pine Used For Now?
As mentioned, Huon Pine is the boat building timber nonpareil and remains so today. It is much prized for furniture making and cabinetry work especially the bird’s eye and figured timbers. It is also used for small artefacts, homewares, souvenirs and creative woodcraft.

Huon Pine boat
Houn Pine Boat
(Source: AustralianWoodWork)

 

Marine Surveyor
   Manufacturing & Production

Practical or MechanicalClerical or OrganisingAnalytic or ScientificSkill Level 4Skill Level 5

Marine surveyors examine marine vessels to assess the quality, safety, and compliance with standards or specifications, the condition of their structure, machinery and equipment. They ensure vessels are constructed, equipped and maintained according to safety standards and are seaworthy. They check design plans, and ensure the construction of marine vessels complies with marine industry standards. Marine surveyors periodically perform inspections to ensure acceptable standards are maintained throughout the ship's life. They may inspect passenger and cargo ships, commercial charter craft, fishing vessels, recreational craft, yachts, cruise liners, high-speed ferries, small boats FutureGrowthModerate and crude oil carriers.

They also recommend appropriate repairs and investigate marine accidents.

ANZSCO ID: 231215

Alternative names: Ship's Surveyor; Maritime Surveyor

Specialisations: Marine surveyors may specialise in the examination of a particular aspect of a vessel such as marine mechanical equipment or the assessment of decks or hulls. With the appropriate training and accreditation, marine surveyors may work in multiple specialisations.

Classification Society Marine Surveyor - inspects ships, components and machinery to ensure they are built according to the standards required for their class, and examines accident damage.

Government Marine Surveyor - inspects ships, components and machinery to ensure they meet crew and passenger safety regulations and construction standards. They may also assess and approve safety reports and plans, and examine candidates for certificates of competency.

Private Marine Surveyor - examines ships and their cargoes, investigates accidents in port and at sea (oil spillages, for example) and prepares accident reports for insurance purposes.

Knowledge, skills and attributes      

  • enjoy the sea and maritime activities
  • to enjoy practical activities
  • problem-solving ability
  • a good grasp of mathematics and measuring
  • an inquisitive mind with attention to detail
  • good written and verbal communication skills
  • aptitude for using computers
  • an understanding of safety procedures and regulations
  • able to work with a variety of people - good teamwork skills  

 

Marine Surveyor at work
At work
(Source: TargetRHR)

Initial Inspection
Initial Inspection
(Source: Maritime Survey Australia)

Duties and Tasks

Marine surveyors may perform the following tasks:

  • Examines and approves design plans of hulls and equipment such as main propulsion engines, auxiliary boilers and turbines, electrical power generating plant, refrigeration and air-conditioning plant and pumping systems.
  • Conducts periodic surveys throughout a ship's life to ensure standards are maintained.
  • inspect standards of construction and witness tests of materials
  • inspect hulls, machinery and equipment during ship construction to ensure standards and legislative requirements are met
  • inspect or survey marine vessels with regard to quality, safety and seaworthiness
  • ensure vessels comply with international standards or specifications
  • conduct surveys throughout the ship's life to ensure standards are maintained
  • perform inspections required by domestic statutes and international conventions
  • inspect cargoes of seagoing vessels to certify compliance with national and international health and safety regulations in cargo handling and stowage
  • recommend appropriate repairs to marine vessels
  • inspect cargo handling devices to identify maintenance needs or issues
  • witness tests and operation of emergency and safety machinery and equipment
  • measure ships for tonnage and survey them for load line assignment
  • examine vessels in relation to insurance claims, and write detailed reports
  • attend court as an expert witness and assist with coronial enquiries
  • investigate marine accidents

 

on rig
On rig
(Source: Your Career)

Working conditions

As a marine surveyor you would be expected to work a set number of hours per week, usually in daylight hours, but this may include weekends. Nearly all marine survey work is done outside at a port or slipway. Marine surveyors spend some of their time based in an office. They also spend considerable time outdoors in harbours or out at sea, in various weather conditions. They may be required to travel for work, and sometimes they need to base themselves at the location of the ship for the duration of their project.

 In addition to working at a specific port, you may need to travel to other ports and where individual vessels are docked. Marine surveyors may spend periods of time at sea, or away from home. Conditions on board ships and offshore platforms can be rough and you would work in all types of weather.

Tools and technologies

Marine surveyors may use infrared thermography and multimeters to assess electrical wiring and damage on vessels, moisture meters to check leaks in hulls, waterproof flexible cameras to inspect fuel and water tanks, carbon monoxide detectors to check for exhaust problems, as well as cameras to document evidence. They must also regularly consult maritime standards and codes to establish the seaworthiness of vessels.

Education and training/entrance requirements

To become a marine surveyor, you need to study a qualification in marine surveying. The International Diploma of Commercial Marine Surveying and the Advanced Diploma of Commercial Marine Surveying are offered by the Australasian Institute of Marine Surveyors, the largest industry body in the Australasian region for professional marine surveyors. These are the only courses in marine surveying available in Australia. The courses are delivered online. However, there are practical components that require access to a vessel between seven and 35 metres in length.

To become a marine surveyor you usually have to complete a VOC qualification in maritime operations (marine surveying). As subjects and prerequisites can vary between institutions you should contact your chosen institution for more information.

You can also become a marine surveyor with a degree in applied science, specialising in marine surveying. To get into this course you usually need to gain your HSC/ACT Year 12. Prerequisite subjects, or assumed knowledge, in one or more of mathematics, chemistry and physics are normally required. Contact the Australian Maritime College at the University of Tasmania for more information as requirements may change.

Entry to this occupation may be improved if you have experience in another occupation [Marine Engineer, Naval Architect, Ship's Officer or Shipwright].

Employment Opportunities

Marine surveyors work for port authorities, shipping companies, insurance companies, government agencies and classification societies. Private marine surveyors work for ship owners and operators, insurance companies, freight forwarders (companies that arrange for the transport of goods) and consignees (people who receive goods).

With the changing nature of the international shipping environment and technological advances, there is likely to be more emphasis on specialist maritime areas in the future at the expense of the traditional marine surveyor.

Depending on their area of work, a marine surveyor could be asked to travel overseas to investigate causes of accidents or damage to cargoes.

The boom in the cruising industry, and the greater volume of international cargo in and out of Australian ports, has increased the need for marine surveyors to inspect these vessels and ensure compliance with international regulations.

 

 

 

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Material sourced from
Jobs & Skills WA [Naval Architect; Marine Surveyor; ]
CareerHQ [Marine or Naval Architect; Marine Surveyor; ]
CareersOnline [Naval Architect; Marine Surveyor; ]
Job Outlook [Naval Architects; Marine Surveyor;  ]

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