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Farm Manager
Farm Worker

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Farmers and farm managers undertake farming operations to raise livestock and cultivate crops, fruit, vegetables and other agricultural products. A farmer is a self-employed person who farms their own land Future Growth Static or a leasehold property rented from a landowner. A farm manager is an employee who is paid a salary to manage a farm or group of farms. Farmers and farm managers may specialise in enterprises such as cropping or horticulture. Others work with animals such as beef or dairy cattle, sheep, pigs or poultry. Many farmers and farm managers conduct mixed farming operations.

Farmers may work on large or small enterprises, or they may need to travel. They spend much of their time working outdoors.

Farmer is a generic term and can be divided into the following sub-categories (according to JobOutlook.gov.au):

Aquacuture Farmers Aquacuture Farmer

Aquaculture Farmer
Crop Farmers
(each linked job is described separately)


Cotton Growers; Flower Growers [Floriculturalist]; Fruit & Nut Growers [Pomologist]; Grain, Oilseed & Pasture Growers; Grape Growers[ Viticulturist]; Mixed Crop Farmers; Sugar Cane Growers; Turf Growers; Vegetable Growers [Olericulturalist]; Other Crop Farmers.
Crop Farmer

Crop Farmer
Livestock Farmers
(each linked job is described separately)

Beekeepers, Beef Cattle Farmers, Dairy Cattle Farmers, Deer Farmers, Goat Farmers, Horse Breeders, Mixed Livestock Farmers, Pig Farmers, Poultry Farmers, Sheep Farmers, Other Livestock Farmers
Livestock Farmer

Livestock Farmer
Mixed Crop and Livestock Farmers  

ANZSCO ID: 1220

Alternative names: Grazier,

Specialisations: Farmers and farm managers may specialise in enterprises such as cropping or horticulture. Others work with animals such as beef or dairy cattle, sheep, pigs or poultry. Many farmers and farm managers conduct mixed farming operations.

Permaculturalist - cultivates plants and crops through the use of sustainable practices and renewable resources to minimise the impact upon local ecosystems while maximising natural productivity.

Production Horticulturist - is involved in the cultivation and maintenance of such produce as berries, nuts, fruit, vegetables and other crops. These products can be exported as either fresh or dried produce. Production horticulturists are involved in all of the associated production processes.

Cattle and Wheat Farmer, Sheep and Wheat Farmer.

Knowledge, skills and attributes

  • good at planning
  • able to analyse and solve problems
  • good organisational and supervisory skills
  • good communication skills
  • responsible approach and attitude
  • enjoy working outdoors in all kinds of weather
  • able to work both in a team and with limited social contact
  • able to handle animals with confidence and patience
  • mechanical aptitude
  • aptitude for working with computers
  • able to work independently.

Duties and Tasks

Farmers and farm managers may perform the following tasks: Farmers

  • decide or advise on the kind of crops to be grown, the area to be sown or planted and the livestock to be raised
  • plan the type of farming activities to be undertaken, estimate operating costs and order supplies such as seed, fertiliser, livestock fodder and farm equipment
  • recruit and coordinate farm workers, and direct them on crop growing and livestock raising
  • plant, spray, fertilise, harvest and sell crops
  • handle, load and transport livestock for showing, slaughter or sale
  • clean and maintain buildings, sheds, pens, equipment and facilities to maintain health standards and high quality of produce
  • monitor animal health and seek veterinary advice when necessary
  • make sure there is adequate food supply, water and protection from the weather for livestock
  • make sure temperature, ventilation and lighting conditions are comfortable for livestock kept indoors
  • observe and record produce quality or livestock body weight and condition, adjusting management or feeding programs if required
  • manage the strategic direction of the business
  • manage the financial aspects of the business by controlling income and expenses
  • plan activities to minimise environmental degradation, monitor environmental effects of farming activities and repair existing damage through programs such as tree planting.

Working Conditions

Farmers may work on large or small enterprises, or they may need to travel between a number of properties to manage activities. They spend much of their time working outdoors.

Education and training/entrance requirements

You can work as a farmer or farm manager without formal qualifications, although skills in farm management, crop management and/or animal husbandry are considered essential. You may learn these skills from an experienced farmer or farm manager on a working farm or formally at an educational institution such as a TAFE, university or an agricultural college. Courses may focus on specific areas of agriculture or all aspects of farm management.

You may like to consider a VOC qualification in agriculture, agribusiness or rural operations. As subjects and prerequisites can vary between institutions, you should contact your chosen institution for further information. You may be able to study through distance education.

You can also become a farmer or farm manager through a traineeship in Agriculture, Agribusiness or Rural Operations.

Entry requirements may vary, but employers generally require Year 10.

Alternatively, you can become a farmer or farm manager by completing a degree in agriculture, agribusiness, animal science, agricultural science or rural science. To get into these courses you usually need to gain your HSC/ACT Year 12. Prerequisite subjects, or assumed knowledge, in one or more of English, mathematics, physics and chemistry are normally required. Applicants may also be required to attend an interview and have basic farm skills.

A number of universities in Australia offer degrees in these areas.

Employment Opportunities

Traditionally, farms in Australia have been owner operated and farmers have been self-employed. Such properties have often been owned by the one family over many decades.

As product markets have changed and new technologies have been introduced, many properties have merged into bigger farms, often run by employed farm managers. For all farmers and farm managers, the business of running a farm has become more complex and sophisticated.

Did You Know...

•The Australian dairy industry produced 9.2 billion litres of milk during 2007/08

•There are 7,950 dairy farms located across Australia

•About 1,700,000 dairy cows produce all of Australia’s milk

•On average, cows produce 5,250 litres of milk per year

•The most common dairy cow breed in Australia is the Holstein Friesian

•Approximately 40,000 people are directly employed on dairy farms and in manufacturing plants

(Source: Dairy Australia)
Dairy Cow
Holstein Friesian cow in paddock

Which breed of cow produces the richest milk (highest in milk fats)?

Which breed of cow produces the most milk?

Read the Australian Bureau of Statistics' -
The Australian dairy industry - "Dairy breeds"
Jersey cow
Jersey cow in paddock, NSW


Farmer

Horticultural Assistant

Zookeeper

Beekeeper

Civil Engineer

Horticulturalist

Viticulturalist

Surveyor

Landscape Architect

Horse Trainer

Lifeguard

Forester

Electrical Linesperson

Shearer

Greenkeeper

Stonemason

Crop Farmer

Livestock Farmer

Aquaculture Farmer

Miner

Mining Engineer

Petroleum Engineer

Jillaroo Jackeroo

Arborist

Horse Manager

Wool Classer

Farrier

Waste Water Operator

Horse Groomer

Grain Oilseed Pasture Grower

Animal Attendant and Trainer

Coastal Engineer

Pomologist

Pest and Weed Controller

Geographer

Olericulturist

Environmental Consultant

Floriculturist

Farmer

Horticultural Assistant

Zookeeper

Beekeeper

Civil Engineer

Horticulturalist

Surveyor

Beekeeper

Landscape Architect

Lifeguard

Horse Trainer

Forester

Electrical Linesperson

Shearer

Greenkeeper

Stonemason

Crop Farmer

Livestock Farmer

Aquaculture Farmer

Miner

Mining Engineer

Petroleum Engineer

Jillaroo Jackeroo

Arborist

Horse Manager

Wool Classer

Farrier

Waste Water Operator

Horse Groomer

Grain Oilseed Pasture Grower

Animal Attendant and Trainer

Coastal Engineer

Pomologist

Pest and Weed Controller

Geographer

Olericulturist

Environmental Consultant

Floriculturist