Fun Activities

 WebQuest: George Augustus Robinson: Friend or Foe?
Created by Fiona Keating

MiddleMiddle  High SchoolSecondary

LiteracyAustralian Curriculum General Capability: Literacy

CriticalAustralian Curriculum General Capability: Critical and creative thinking

Personal and social capabilityAustralian Curriculum General Capability: Personal and social capability

Intercultural UnderstandingAustralian Curriculum General Capability: Intercultural Understanding

Ethical Understanding Australian Curriculum General Capability: Ethical Understanding

ICT Capability Australian Curriculum General Capability: ICT Capability

Australian Curriculum Cross Curriculum Priorities: Asian Priority

Australian Curriculum Cross Curriculum Priorities: Sustainability Priority

 

 

Introduction


George Augustus Robinson:
Friend or Foe? 

Previously we have learnt about why convicts were sent to Australia, what life was like as a convict and the early contact between the British and the people who already inhabited Australia prior to invasion- the Indigenous people of Australia.

Now we are going to focus on Van Diemen's Land (Tasmania), particularly George Augustus Robinson and his role as "Chief Protector of the Aborigines".

Through examining the actions of George Augustus Robinson we will make connections to the society of today and specifically Indigenous rights.

It was January 1824 and George Augustus Robinson had just arrived in Hobart Town after a long voyage from England. He had left his wife and five children in England with plans to bring them out to Australia at a later date.


(Image source: fromwhencewecame)


Relations between British settlers and the Indigenous people of Van Diemen's Land at this time were that of open hostility. This was due to not only to the invasion of the land that had previously been occupied by the Indigenous people but also to the general maltreatment and cruelty that had been directed at the Indigenous people.

Most British settlers at the time believed that the best way to solve issues with Indigenous people was to relocate or exterminate them all. Some colonists however, believed conciliation was possible. This included Governor (Sir) George Arthur and in 1828 he advertised a position that was to seek out a “steady man of good character to effect an intercourse with the natives”. George Augustus Robinson applied for the position and was appointed.


Governor George Arthur

(Image Source: Google Images)


Over the years many people have tried to analyse George Augustus Robinson’s character and motives. It is evident through the events that transpired during his time as “Chief Protector of the Aborigines” that George Augustus Robinson was a complex man but whether or not he was a friend or a foe to the Indiegnous people of Tasmania has so far remained uncertain.

(Adapted from the following references:
Rae-Ellis, V. (1998); Macintyre, S. (1999); and, Australian Dictionary of Biography. (2006) - for more details see References in Teacher's Guide)


Your task is to decide whether George Augustus Robinson was an honourable "protector of the Aborigines" or a greedy, self serving man who betrayed those Indigenous people who had placed their trust in him.




Get to know George Augustus Robinson by listening to the following sound recording

Tasmanian journals of George Augustus Robinson
(ABC: The Book Show, 9 June 2009)




Read more about George Augustus Robinson's life by reading the following short biography

George Augustus Robinson (1791-1866)
(Australian Dictionary of Biography)


 


Task

 

Sketch
(Source: NSW State Library: WebArchive.org)

Your task is to decide whether George Augustus Robinson should be fondly remembered as an honourable, innocent man of good intentions or as a greedy man who is guilty of deceiving the Indigenous people of Van Diemen's Land in the 1800s.
 
In groups you will research the people and events that shaped the differing views regarding George Augustus Robinson. Some groups will be responsible for researching events while others will be responsible for examining the personalities of those people who shaped the events of the time.
 
You will come to a conclusion about how George Augustus Robinson should be remembered by taking part in a Court hearing and discussing and analysing each piece of evidence that has been collected.

 

Process

*At the conclusion of each lesson you will reflect on what you have learnt and achieved through the use of the class Blog, if a computer is not available you can write your reflection in your workbook. Your teacher will post weekly questions on the Blog for you to answer.
 
 
 
 
Step One

As a class, create a mind map using Mindmeister. Your mind map should include knowledge that you already have about early Australia, convicts, Van Diemen's Land (Tasmania) and early contact between the British Settlers and the Indigenous people of Australia. You should also include knowledge that you would like to gain about George Augustus Robinson.
 
 
 
(Image Source: MyMindMap)
 
 ____________________________________________________________________________________
Step Two
 
Listen to the sound recording in the Introduction, this time use the strategy of focused listening to gain as much information from the recording as you can.
 
 
 
 _____________________________________________________________________________________
Step Three

Read the online biography found in the Introduction and create a timeline of George Augustus Robinson's life as a class

 
 
 
 _____________________________________________________________________________________
Step Four

Individually make a story board of the life of George Augustus Robinson- you will be able to refer to the timeline you made as a class
 
 
 
 
 (Image Source: ANBG)
 
 
 _____________________________________________________________________________________
Step Five
 
Form into groups of five people- your teacher will give your group a particular title and responsibility
 
Groups:
• Defence
 Prosecution
• George Augustus Robinson- defendant and associates (one of your group members will be George Augustus Robinson)
• Indigenous Tasmanians- witness and associates (one of your group members will act as an Indigenous Tasmanian)

 
 
Further Information about Groups:
Defence (lawyer and associates)
Your groups overall task will be to defend George Augustus Robison in the court hearing- you will be his lawyers. You will defend his character, his motives and his actions. You will argue that he is an innocent man who was a friend to the Tasmanian Aborigines. Your group will need to research all events that occurred in Van Diemen's Land in which George Augustus Robinson was involved. Your group will need to liaise with the group that are responsible for presenting George Augustus Robinson as a witness at the court hearing.
 
Prosecution (lawyer and associates)
Your group will be responsible for prosecuting George Augustus Robinson, you will argue that he was in fact a man of poor character who only ever had his own interests at heart. You will need to investigate situations that George Augustus Robinson was involved in and show that through his actions he was a foe to the Indigenous people of Van Diemen's Land.

George Augustus Robinson (witness/defendant and associates)
Your group will be responsible for presenting George Augustus Robinson as a man of honour and esteem at the court hearing. You will need to research George Augustus Robinson in great detail, you will need to have a sound grasp of his personality and bring it to life.
 
Indigenous people of Tasmania (witness and associates)
Your group will be responsible for presenting the Indigenous point of view regarding George Augustus Robinson at the court hearing. You will need to consider life for Indigenous people prior to invasion, prior to Robinson’s “Friendly Mission” and then after these times. You will need to consider what life would have been like if George Augustus Robinson was not appointed in his role and the relationships that he had with Indigenous people.
 
 
 
_____________________________________________________________________________________
Step Six

Within your group allocate a role to each group member (if you need help with allocation your teacher will assign roles for you)
 

Roles:
• Speaker (lawyers and witnesses)
• Writer
• Team organiser/ liaison officer
• Researcher 1
• Researcher 2

 
 
 
 
______________________________________________________________________________________
Step Seven
 

Find out what you have to do within your role:
 
Resources to use within each of your roles are located on the "Resources" page
 
 

Speakers
 
Lawyers- You will be speaking for your group at the court hearing, you will represent them through sharing all evidence that they have provided you with.

Things to consider:
• How does a lawyer convince a judge of their argument?
• What kind of language does a lawyer use?
• What kind of questions does a lawyer ask a witness? (you will need to compile a list of at least 10 questions from discussion with your team writer)
• How does a lawyer elicit certain responses from a witness?
• How does a lawyer make an effective closing statement
 
 
Witnesses- You will be representing your group as a witness. You will be put up on the stand where you will be able to make an opening statement of your belief about George Augustus Robinson. You will then face questions from both lawyers.
Things to consider:
• What is your view about George Augustus Robinson?
• How will you best represent your point of view?
• What are possible questions you will be asked by the lawyers? (with help from your teams writer compile a list of at least 10 questions and answers you may be asked)
• How can you articulate your answers to questions in a way that supports your views?
 
 

Writer
 
Prosecution and Defence groups- Your primary task will be to write the opening statement for your teams lawyer, you will need to discuss with your teams researcher which information they think is best to be included in your statement

Things to consider:
• What is the structure of an opening statement?
• What is the structure of an exposition?
• Which pieces of information should be included in an opening statement?
• How can an opening statement be most effective?
• How long does an opening statement need to be?
• What kind of language is appropriate for an opening statement?
As the team writer you will also need to work closely with the team lawyer in compiling a list of questions to ask witnesses
 
 
Witnesses- You will be responsible for creating a short, effective statement that your team speaker will present to the court prior to being questioned.

Things to consider:
• Who is the witness that will read out this statement?
• What is the message they are trying to get across?
• What kind of language should the statement include? Emotive?
• How can the statement be most effective?
• What structure should the statement take?

As team writer you will also need to work closely with your teams witness/ speaker in compiling a list of possible questions and answers in anticipation of the court hearing

 
 
 
 
 
Team organiser/ liaison officer
As team organiser and liaison officer you will be responsible for ensuring your team members are on task and also for meeting with representatives from other teams and sharing information. You will continually visit members of your group finding out updates of their progress, providing suggestions and advice and also sharing information between group members. You may also be asked to meet with your teacher and provide updates of your groups progress.
 
 

Researchers 1 & 2
The teams two researchers will first consult with each other and organise what it is they need to research in order to best represent the position of their group.

Things to consider:
• How will you split the research between two people?
• What is the purpose of your research?
• Who are you representing?
• What is the argument your teams is trying to get across?
• Which aspects of events/ characters and actions are most important for your team?
• Where will you obtain your research from?
• How will you present your research?
• How much research do you need to do in order to provide your group with enough information?
 
 
 _____________________________________________________________________________________
Step Eight
 
Organise what your group must do, ensure all groups members understand what they need to do

 
 
 
 
 _____________________________________________________________________________________
Step Nine
Carry out your roles- at the beginning of each lesson your group will meet for 10 minutes and discuss what has been achieved and further work that needs to be done

 
 
 (Image Source: Wales NHS)
 
 
_______________________________________________________________________________
Step Ten

Come together as a group and put together all work that will be included in the court hearing, practise what you plan to say
 
 
 
 
 _____________________________________________________________________________________
Step Eleven
 
Set up the classroom as if it were a court room

 


 (Image Source: miwd)
______________________________________________________________________________________
Step Twelve

Take part in the court hearing, your teacher will be the magistrate, you will need a notepad and pen at all times as if you are not speaking you should be listening and taking notes

 
 
Remember you will be under oath… Only include factual information!
 
 
 
 
 _____________________________________________________________________________________
Step Thirteen

Opening statements shared by lawyers- five minutes each
 
 
 
 
 
 
 _____________________________________________________________________________________
Step Fourteen
 
Call upon witnesses, witnesses make opening statements and are then questioned by both lawyers
 
 
 
 
 
 
 ______________________________________________________________________________________
Step Fifteen
 
After a brief meeting with their groups, lawyers will make their closing statements
 
 
 
 
 
 _____________________________________________________________________________________
Step Sixteen

You (the class) become the jury, forget all of your previous roles!- analyse all evidence from the notes you have taken and discuss your opinions of the factual nature of the evidence
 
 
 
 
(Image Source: WebOpera
 
 
 
 
 _____________________________________________________________________________________
Step Seventeen
 

Take a class vote as to whether George Augustus Robinson was a friend to the Tasmanian Indigenous people or a foe?
 
 
 
 
 
 _____________________________________________________________________________________
Step Eighteen
 
Make recommendations as to how you as a class think George Augustus Robinson should be remembered
 

 


 
 
 (Image Source: FBI)
 _____________________________________________________________________________________
Step Nineteen

Add to the class Mind Map- What have you learnt? Have all of your questions been answered? If not, what will you do to find answers to your questions?
 
 
 
_____________________________________________________________________________________
Step Twenty
 
Assess yourself using the self assessment rubric located on the "Evaluation" page
 
 
 
_____________________________________________________________________________________
Step Twenty One
 
Answer the reflection questions located on the "Evaluation" page
 
 
 
 
 
 
Was George Augustus Robinson a Friend or a Foe?
 
(Image Source: Tasmanian State Library)
 
 
 

 

Article Name and URL Arguments Fact or Opinion
Counter Arguments

Use the Resources listed [below] to help with your perspective.

6.

Resources


 
 
Resources
 
 
Background Information
 
 
 
 
Listening Activity: Hancock, J., & Leaver, C. (2009). Teaching Strategies for Literacy. Norwood, South Australia: Australian Literacy Educators' Association.
 
 
Resources for Roles
 
 
 
 
 
 
Court Hearing Resources
 
 
 
 
 
General Resources
 
 
 
 
 
Additional Readings
 
Macintyre, S. (1999).  A Concise History of Australia. Melbourne: Cambridge University Press.
 
Fate of a Free People by Henry Reynolds
 
Aboriginal Tasmanians by Lyndall Ryan
 
Telling the Truth about Aboriginal History by Brian Attwood
 
Weep in Silence by N.J.B Plomley
 
Rae-Ellis, V. (1998). George Robinson- Black Robinson, Protector of the Aborigines. Melbourne: Melbourne University press.





Evaluation

 

Reflect on the mind map that your class created before you began the unit, as a class add your new understandings (in a new colour). Have all of your questions been answered? Are there still things you want to find out?
 
 
Self assess your learning and effort from the unit by filling in the following assessment rubric. Your teacher will also fill in the same rubric in order to assess your work.
 
Download Assessment Rubric
 
 
 
 
Write a small passage about what you did well during the unit, what you could have done better and how you think the information you have acquired will be beneficial in the future.
 
 
 
(Image Source: utas)
 

 

 

Activity Working Towards Achieved Exemplary
1. Perspective

Individual Role

Group Work

Class Work
Fulfilled their individual role within the group.

Contributed to the group and class discussion, found and responded to the perspective with some understanding of this role. Research completed with limited idea of arguments or counter arguments, not sure of either facts or opinions.

Contributed to the class consensus.
Went to some effort to fulfil their individual role.

Contributed to the discussion, found and responded to the perspective, thought of the purpose or reason for the perspective, and described their reactions, and thoughts to these understanding.
Research completed, arguments and counter arguments analysed with distinct notion of either fact or opinion.

Contributed to the class consensus process.
Went to extraordinary lengths to fulfil their individual role.

Contributed to the discussion, found and responded to their perspective, thought of the purpose, reasons and predicaments of their perspective. Research completed, arguments and counter arguments analysed methodically;  distinct notion of which is  fact or opinion and categorised into perspectives.

Contributed to the class consensus process.

Drew conclusions about each perspective and gave thoughtful and provocative ideas to stimulate ideas.
2. CITES Recommendation

Individual Role

Group Work

Class Work
Fulfilled their individual role within the group.

Contributed to the brainstorming session. Able to distinguish the reasoning of each perspective.

Contributed to the group's understanding of the recommendation.

Contributed to the class' consensus building exercise.

Went to some effort to fulfil their individual role.

Contributed to the brainstorming session, and analysed the reasons of each perspective. Was able to distinguish and speak out about the difference between each reason.

Contributed to the group's exercise of writing the recommendation.

Contributed to the class' consensus building process.
Went to extraordinary lengths to fulfil their individual role.

Contributed to the brainstorming session, synthesised and analysed the information about the issue. Raised questions about the perceived differences in interpretation of each perspective and the recommendations put forward. Was able to distinguish and speak out about the difference put forward by each perspective and help the group know the difference.

Contributed to the class' consensus building process by debating the recommendations involved in a positive way.
3. Strategy

Individual Role

Group Work

Class Work
Fulfilled their individual role within the group.

Contributed to the making of the strategy and helped with deciding and contributed to the creative presentation.
Went to some effort to fulfil their individual role.

Contributed to the making of the strategy. Listed and interpreted information about the strategy. Listed the important messages and analysed the information from the various sources given. Helped with the group's creativity to show their strategy and added to any ideas in a positive and creative way.

Created an app with limited functionality.

Thought of some questions about their strategy and helped construct the strategy in a positive and creative way.
Went to extraordinary lengths to fulfil their individual role.

Deduced the characteristics of the strategy. Analysed and categorised the messages and qualities of their strategy. Helped in an extraordinary way with the group's creativity to show their strategy. Thought of interesting and challenging questions for the strategy.

Helped in deciding on the group's strategy and added new twists or innovation to its completion.

Created an outstanding app.

Contributed to the group's activities in a positive and creative way.

Conclusion



Through considering the life and actions of George Augustus Robinson you will have awareness of the complex history that exists in Australia between Indigenous people and British settlers. You will know that Indigenous people were forced to change their way of life due to the invasion of their land and that society has continued to encourage Indigenous people to "conform" ever since the arrival of the First Fleet on Australian shores.
 
Consider the actions of George Augustus Robinson in relation to his quest to "civilise" and "Christianise" Indigenous people in the 1800s and compare those actions to the actions of the government in Australia today.
 
 
 
 (Image Source: abc)
 
 
Visit the following sites that detail current government programs aimed at improving the education of Indigenous people and then answer the subsequent questions
 
 
Stronger Smarter Learning Communities (SSLC)
 
Education Reform Agenda 

The Indigenous Literacy Project
 
Dare to Lead
 
GenerationOne
 
 
 
 
Has anything really changed?
How are the actions of the government in Australia today any different to the actions of the government in Van Diemen's Land in the 1800s?
Is the present government in Australia doing the right thing by Indigenous people in Australia?
How are government strategies now more beneficial to Indigenous people than those that were put forward during the 1800s?
Is there anything else the government could be doing to improve the quality of life for Indigenous people?
 
 

Teacher's Guide

This WebQuest has been designed to be used as an integrated unit of work. It has been designed to be used with students in years 5-8. The WebQuest has been made in the ACT, Australia.
 
 
The purpose of this WebQuest is to elicit awareness in students about Australia's history, particularly Indigenous history. Indigenous rights have often been neglected in our education curriculums in the past. This WebQuest aims to take students back to the British invasion of Australia and to encourage students to make connections between the past and the Australia we live in today. Students will need to make judgements about events that occurred in the past and whether we have improved as a nation since those events.
 
 
The unit aims to encourage higher-order thinking in students through the examination of the people and events that surrounded the life of George Augustus Robinson. Students will need to investigate people and events of the past and then use that information to produce effective pieces of work that endorse the argument they are trying to portray.
 
 
The WebQuest is not prescriptive in that students have control over which direction they wish to take their research. It is important in a unit such as this one that there are no explicit opinions offered, this way students are able to create their own opinions based on the research that they undertake. In this unit there are no right or wrong answers. Critical thinking is a vital skill that students will need to use and develop throughout this WebQuest.
 
 
While teaching this unit it is vital that sensitivity to Indigenous culture is apparent at all times. This is particularly important when using certain images and presenting certain information. Language used must be respectful and appropriate, it is important to be aware of the language most acceptable to the Indigenous people that reside in the area in which your teaching will take place.
 
 
 
 
 
ACT Curriculum Framework- Every Chance to Learn
 
The WebQuest has been aimed for use in the "Early Adolescence" Band of Development. The WebQuest best applies to the following Essential Learning Achievements (ELAs).
 
 
ELA 21. The student understands about Australia and Australians
21.EA.3 Indigenous perspectives of colonisation and how Indigenous peoples’ lives were affected (e.g. impact of disease, frontier wars, dispossession and land disputes, differing experiences in different locations, increasing government control)
21.EA.4 past and contemporary people, movements, events and ideas that shaped Australia as a nation with a sense of Australian identity
21.EA.8 current issues an challenges facing the local community and Australian society
 
ELA 22. The student understands and values what it means to be a citizen within a democracy
22.EA.13 ways to become involved in, or influence, representative groups in the school or community (e.g. a campaign to raise awareness about a significant issue, elections)
22.EA.16 express their own viewpoints on issues and contribute to class and group decision-making.
 
ELA 1. The student uses a range of strategies to think and learn
ELA 2. The student understands and applies the inquiry process
ELA 4. The student acts with integrity and regard for others
ELA 5. The student contributes to group effectiveness
ELA 6. The student uses Information and Communication Technologies effectively
ELA 7. The student creates, presents and appreciates artistic works
ELA 8. The student listens and speaks with purpose and effect
ELA 9. The student reads effectively
ELA 10. The student writes effectively
ELA 11. The student critically interprets and creates texts
 
 
 
 
 
Duration
 
The integrated unit would ideally take place over a duration of 10 weeks, with two one hour lessons per week being dedicated to this WebQuest.
The following lesson timetable is a guide only and should be adapted to suit the particular class undertaking the unit of work.
Lesson Timetable






Pre-requisites
 
Students undertaking this unit will ideally have previously completed a unit that detailed early Australia and the convict era although this is not essential. It is important that students undertaking this unit are mature enough to approach the subject in a manner which is respectful and valuable in their learning.


 
 
 
Learning Styles from Learning Styles Online
 
 
Visual (spatial)- Many images used throughout WebQuest, opportunity to create poster or cartoon in "Conclusion"

Aural (auditory-musical)- Sound recording in "Introduction", opportunity to listen to and create a song in "Conclusion"

Verbal (linguistic)- Speaker and writer roles in "Process" 

Physical (kinesthetic)- Students take part in a court hearing in "Process"

Logical (mathematical)- Role in "Process" involves organising the team to work effectively 

Social (interpersonal)- Co-operative learning throughout WebQuest 

Solitary (intrapersonal)- During roles students can work independently and students need to complete conclusion tasks independently
 
 
 
 


Class Management and Process

During this WebQuest there is an extended amount of group work. It will be up to you as the teacher as to whether you wish to assign groups and roles or allow students to organise groups themselves. As much of the unit involves students working independtly, the teacher will need to constantly ensure students are on task- an effective way to ensure this may be to organise weekly meetings with each of the groups' liaison officers. 
 
Majority of the work in this WebQuest requires the use of computers, if possible it would be most advantageous to have the school computer lab booked for the two lessons dedicated to this unit each week. If this is not possible, many lessons will need to be adapted.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Recommended Resources to Consider in Preparation for the Unit
 
The most effective way to pursue this unit as a teacher would be to first research the life of George Augustus Robinson prior to the commencement of the unit.
 
 
 
The first port of call would be a visit to one of the following online biographies:
 
 
 
 
 
Additional, in depth information is available from the following books:
 
Fate of a Free People by Henry Reynolds
 
Aboriginal Tasmanians by Lyndall Ryan
 
Telling the Truth about Aboriginal History by Brian Attwood
 
Weep in Silence by N.J.B Plomley
 
George Robinson- Black Robinson by Vivienne Rae-Ellis
 
 
(Image Source: AngusRobertson)
 
 
Extended Readings:
 
Blood on the Wattle by Bruce Elder
 
 
 
 
 


Additional Notes
 
Class Blog- Throughout the unit students will be asked to write reflections on the class Blog, this is a fantastic way for students to capture their progress throughout the unit. You will need to set up the class Blog prior to the commencement of the unit, as administrator you will have the overall authority. You will have to approve all posts before they are published and you will be the only one who can post topics/ questions.
 

Each week you will ideally post a new set of questions for students to answer, examples of questions may be: Describe something interesting that you found out during today's lesson, What are your goals for next lesson? What could you have done better during today's lesson?

 
 
Group work- If there are more than 20 students in your class, extra roles can be easily included with the addition of either extra researchers or writers. It would be most effective if while students are completing their roles within their groups, they meet for 10 minutes at the beginning of each lesson to discuss their progress.
 
Court Hearing- Whilst the court hearing is taking place, you- the teacher, will ideally act as the magistrate and ensure that order is maintained within the "Court room".
 
Assessment- Assessment of this WebQuest will be ongoing through observation as well as the completion of an assessment rubric by both the student and the teacher
 
 
 
 
Credits
 
This WebQuest was constructed as part of a university unit (EDFD 213: Technology and Learning) that was undertaken in Semester 1, 2010 at the Australian Catholic University, Canberra campus.
 
 
 
 
 
 
Disclaimer
 
All content including images contained within this WebQuest have been used purely for educational purposes, if anyone should know of any reason why an element should be removed or edited please contact the author via the email address: fionakkeating@hotmail.com 
 
 
 
 
 
References
 
Australian Capital Territory Department of Education and Training. (2008). Every Chance to Learn: Curriculum framework for ACT schools: Preschool to year 10. Retrieved May 2, 2010, from http://activated.act.edu.au/ectl/resources/ECTL_EarlyAdolescence.pdf
 
Australian Dictionary of Biography. (2006). Robinson, George Augustus. Retrieved May 7, 2010, from http://adbonline.anu.edu.au/biogs/A020340b.htm
 
Hancock, J., & Leaver, C. (2009). Teaching Strategies for Literacy. Norwood, South Australia: Australian Literacy Educators' Association.
 
Berzins, B. (1988). The Coming of the Strangers. New South Wales: Williams Collins Pty Ltd.
 
Forsyth, W.D. (1970). Governor Arthur’s Convict System: Van Diemen’s Land 1824-36. Adelaide: Sydney University Press.
 
Learning-Styles-Online. (2007). Overview of Learning Styles. Retrieved May 4, 2010, from http://www.learning-styles-online.com/overview/
 
Macintyre, S. (1999).  A Concise History of Australia. Melbourne: Cambridge University Press.
 
Rae-Ellis, V. (1998). George Robinson- Black Robinson, Protector of the Aborigines. Melbourne: Melbourne University press.
 
Plomley, N. (1987). Weep in Silence. Tasmania: Blubber Head Press
 
 
 
 
 
 


See the following resources to create this strategy:

 


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