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Philosophy [Community of Inquiry CoI] and the Question Quadrant
Example of CoI: The Little Refugee by Anh Do
Examples of CoI throughout On the Job website
1: 4 Publish Circle Refine Strategy

 

Philosophy [Community of Inquiry] and the Question Quadrant

This is a cooperative learning process that calls for creative thinking and critical reflection. It involves both interpersonal and intrapersonal intelligence. It can be used for all students

PrimaryPrimary MiddleMiddle  High SchoolSecondary

1: 4 Publish, Circle, Refine Strategy can be a sub-set of this CoI strategy depending on the stimulus material.

A Community of Inquiry can be described as:

'a group of people – students, teachers, colleagues – who use discussion to engage in deep thinking, explore big ideas, and grapple with the challenges and possibilities in a puzzling concept, idea or circumstance’ (Museum Victoria n.d.)

This form of community of inquiry was developed by Matthew Lipman and is a part of the Philosophy for Children approach to education. Lipman (2003) argued that a community of inquiry is characterised by; ‘non adversarial deliberations, shared cognitions, the cultivation of literacy and philosophical imagination and the encouragement of deep reading, and the enjoyment of dialogical texts’ (Lipman 2003). Moreover, Lipman’s account of a community of inquiry includes the following features: inclusiveness, participation, shared cognition, face-to face relationships, the quest for meaning, feelings of social solidarity, deliberation, impartiality, modelling, thinking for oneself, challenging as a procedure, reasonableness, the reading, the questioning and the discussion (Lipman 2003). The core business of Philosophy for Children for Lipman, was to promote the improvement of three aspects of thinking: critical, creative and caring (Lipman 2003).

Typically, a community of inquiry involves a group of students sitting together in a circle facing one another, the teacher amongst them as both facilitator and co-inquirer.

 

 

YouTube: Philosophy for Kids
https://youtu.be/YDEtozgixbs

 

 

 

Process of CoI:

After reading or listening to the stimulus material - newspaper article, big picture book, an audio clip, a chaper of a book

In groups of two:

  • Students are to write a question or questions about the stimulus material from each of the four question quadrants
  • Students share the thinking questions with the class by writing up on a whiteboard
  • Select the most common question to discuss.
  • In a circle, conduct a discussion on this common question
  • Hold to the class discussion rules of:
    • one person speaks at a time
    • listen carefully to the speaker: listen for understanding; listen charitably
    • the speaker selects the next speaker
    • speakers are respectful and build on the previous speaker's point of view or questions that view logically
    • be prepared to think and take time to think
  • Keep a record of the other student questions to come back to them if needed
  • Provide closure - see example below

 

 

An example within this website: The Little Refugee by Anh Do

 

PrimaryPrimary MiddleMiddle High SchoolSecondary

LiteracyAustralian Curriculum General Capability: Literacy
CriticalAustralian Curriculum General Capability: Critical and creative thinking
Personal and social capability
Australian Curriculum General Capability: Personal and social capability
Australian Curriculum Cross Curriculum Priorities: Asian Priority

PhilosophyPhilosophy

 

 TeacherTeacher Process:

1. Get the students to form a circle with their chairs or directly on the floor. Everyone is to be in the circle including the Teacher.

2. Using stimulus material, read the story or text by asking the students to take turns to read out loud each paragraph.  

3. Set up a Question Quadrant on the floor or on a whiteboard:

Question Quadrant

 

OR

Question Quadrant

 

4. Get the students, in pairs, to come up with 4 questions - one for each quadrant about the stimulus material.

The Questions for Thinking are the hardest to come up with – but that is what we are aiming for.

Let's look at the stimulus material example: The Little Refugee by Anh Do and Suzanne Do... Read the book or look at the video

The Little Refugee

https://youtu.be/yShmK_PhE0s

 

the Question for Thinking might be "What is Hope?"

5. List all the questions on the board from this 4th Quadrant "Questions for Thinking" and put the students' names next to their question.

6. Ask the students to think about grouping the questions - the ones that are the same or similar - together.

7. Start the discussion with the most asked question.

8. Make sure the students follow the rules of Philosophy in Schools:

  • Only one person speaks at a time
  • Pay attention to the person who is speaking
  • Give other people a chance to speak
  • Build upon other people's ideas
  • No put-downs
    (Source: Associate Prof. Phil Cam)

9. Discussion should involve students in critical, creative and caring thinking:

Critical Creative Caring
give reasons
explore
disagreement
consider implications
apply criteria
weigh evidence
generate questions
raise suggestions
imagine alternatives
formulate criteria
make connections
build on ideas
listen to other's points of view
consider other's reasons
explore disagreements considerately
build on other's ideas
explore other's opinions
help to synthesise suggestions
 

10. Provide Closure:

For example from "The Little Refugee" - Get the students to reflect in their journals a time when they felt lonely.

11. Leave the questions on the board or copy them so that the other unanswered questions can be used in the next lessons.

 

 

Examples of CoI

Community of Inquiry

There are many other examples of the Community of Inquiry [CoI] Strategy throughout this On the Job website. You will notice that I have used The Conversation articles most of the time as the stimulus material. The reason for this choice is:

"The Conversation Australia and New Zealand is a unique collaboration between academics and journalists that in just 10 years has become the world’s leading publisher of research-based news and analysis. Everything you read here is created by academics and journalists working together, supported by a team of digital technology experts. Our professional editors turn knowledge and insights from academics into easy-to-read articles, and make them accessible to readers like you. All our work is free to read and free to republish under Creative Commons. We do this as a not-for-profit company guided by a clear purpose: to provide access to quality explanatory journalism essential for healthy democracy." (Source: The Conversation)

The Conversation

 

Where "On the Job" are Jobs & CoI Activities? Stimulus Material sourced from:
Child Care Centre Manager

Are women "outsourcing" parenting by sending their children to child care?

Child Care Centre Manager
The Conversation
Jockey

"Should there be a ban on whips in Australian horse racing?"

Jockey
The Conversation
Outdoor Adventure Guide

Adventure, Risk, Uncertainty, Consequence: A Community of Inquiry

Outdoor Adventure Guide
The Conversation
Steward (of Racing)

Jiggers, Whips & Stewards: A Community of Inquiry

Steward of Racing

The Conversation

The Conversation
Valuer

What should buyers of a house be told about it? A Community of Inquiry

 Valuer
The Conversation 
 Life on the Job
LOTJ: Sergeant Lillian Armfield

Issues of Gender: A Community of Inquiry

Police Officer
Police
Excerpt from Leigh Straw's Lillian Armfield: How Australia's First Female Detective Took on Tilly Devine and the Razor Gangs and Changed the Face of the Force (2018)

Lillian Armfield
LOTJ: Prof. Marie Curie

"Radioactive": a new Marie Curie biopic inspires, but resonates uneasily for women in Science: A Community of Inquiry

Scientist
Scientist
The Conversation 
LOTJ: Anh Do

The Little Refugee - by Anh Do  

Entertainer
Entertainer
the Little Refugee 
LOTJ: Prof. Naline Joshi

Labels and Assumptions of Women in STEM: A Community of Inquiry

Mathematician
Mathematician
The Conversation 
LOTJ: Prof. Barry Marshall

Scientific Proof: A Community of Inquiry

Medical Laboratory Scientist
Medical Laboratory Scientist
Online Article in "Medium"
LOTJ: Navy Officer

Tweets and Government Employees: Why is it not allowed?

Navy Officer
Navy Officer
Online Article from The Daily Telegraph 
LOTJ: Ashleigh Barty

The Science of Grunting in Tennis: A Community of Inquiry

Sportsperson


Sportsperson
The Conversation 18 January 2018

The Conversation
LOTJ: Winemaker

Ripped from the Headlines? A Community of Inquiry

Winemaker
Winemaker
Article from TV Tonight

 

 


Publish Circle Refine

This is a cooperative learning process that calls for creative thinking and critical reflection. It involves both interpersonal and intrapersonal intelligence. It can be used for all students

PrimaryPrimary MiddleMiddle  High SchoolSecondary

Educators have been particularly impressed with this strategy as a means of encouraging learners to focus, clarify, listen, adapt, refine and use the power of synergy to produce a clear and effective result.

It works as a strategy because pupils have to roll their sleeves up and get stuck in, work together and focus on consensus, find some common ground and compete with others to produce a stand out statement. There is plenty of creative and critical thinking, editing and drafting involved that is demanding and challenging. It pushes children to share their thinking, discuss, argue and RIP (refine, improve and polish).

14PCR also encourages a sense of ownership and pride in their work and makes children realise that idea formation is messy and that reaching a consensus involves compromise and co-creation.

Alternative name: 14PCR

Acronym:

1 - Individual
4 - Groups of 4 students

P - Publish
C - Circle
R - Refine

Process

In groups of four:

  • Students write a statement about or around a topic
  • Students share ideas with other members of the learning team and discuss their statements. The learning team then creates one synthesised statement.
  • Students write the one synthesised statement onto a large sheet of paper (Publish)
  • The large paper is posted on the wall. One member remains with the sheet as the Explainer while the other three members move around the room discussing and reading the contents of the statements and possibly asking questions of the Explainers from other learning teams. As they do this they take notes. (Circle).
  • Students return to their home learning team and discuss the notes they made. Students consider ways of improving their team's synthesised statement. The learning team refines their statement and shares it with the class. (Refine)

YouTube: 14PCR
https://youtu.be/578iLZVkz1I

 

 

 

Material sourced from

Assoc. Prof. Phil Cam - personal communication
RRR - Collaborative Classrooms
John Dabell

A-Z Learning Strategies - KWeb - Brisbane CE [PDF]

 

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