Musician title

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Band Manager
Classical Musician
Disc Jockey or DJ
Ethnomusicologist
Guitar Techician
Jazz Musician
Music Copyist
Music Producer
Musicologist
Performing Musician/Instrumentalist
Session Musician
Vocalist

 

Related Jobs or Working with these Jobs

 

Practical or MechanicalArtistic or CreativeAnalytic or ScientificSkill Level 1Skill Level 2

Skill Level 3Skill Level 4Skill Level 5Skill Level 6

Musicians write, arrange, orchestrate, perform and conduct musical compositions. Future Growth Static

ANZSCO ID: 211213

Specialisations: Composer, Music Director

A musician may perform a variety of tasks depending on their area of specialisation.

Knowledge, skills and attributes

  • musical skills
  • stamina to perform at peak level
  • self-confidence, motivation, dedication and determination
  • good communication skills
  • able to concentrate for long periods
  • mastery of one or more styles of music such as classical, jazz or pop
  • flair for entertainment.

Musician Singing
(Source: CareerGirls)

Duties and Tasks

Musicians may perform the following tasks:

  • study and rehearse musical scores prior to performances
  • play music in recital, as an accompanist, or as a member of an orchestra, band or other musical group, from score or by memory
  • make recordings for sale on compact disc or online
  • make videos to represent the music
  • provide musical backing for television commercials, popular recordings, radio, television or film productions
  • improvise, transpose, compose, or arrange music
  • play under the direction of a conductor.

Working conditions

Musicians must be prepared to work irregular hours and spend long periods in practice and rehearsal. Some musicians work in areas unrelated to music to support themselves. Many professional musicians with experience in all styles combine music performance and music teaching careers in Australia.

 

Band Manager
Leisure and Entertainment

Clerical or OrganisingSkill Level 1Skill Level 2Skill Level 3
Skill Level 4Skill Level 5

Band managers are in charge of the business side of musicians.

A band manager represents a music group in business-related matters within the music industry. This can involve numerous tasks, such as making travel arrangements, offering advice about business Future Growth Static decisions, and negotiating a record deal. There is no education requirement for this profession.

A band manager works closely with a music group to help make major decisions regarding the creative and business direction of the band. The manager is the person the musicians put in charge of the business side of the industry so that they can focus on making music. Some band managers work for management companies, while others work independently. A manager often works on commission. Some take on more than one client; others work full-time with one band.

As a band manager you will be expected to: liaise with venues, contact media, negotiate rates, manage bookings, organise practice and recording time.

Band Manager with Beatles
Brian Epstein with the Beatles
(Source: ToneDeaf)

Duties and Tasks

The duties required of a band manager vary greatly depending on the individual needs of the artist. Some managers focus exclusively on a few duties, such as advising the band on creative, business and personal decisions and assisting them in finding engagements. Others take on multiple roles, such as booking agent, promoter and travel arranger. Managers often negotiate recording contracts and help the band members understand their responsibilities.

As a band manager, you need to take care of gig bookings so that your bands can focus on their music.

One of the first steps in securing a booking is writing an effective email to the venue’s booking agent, so you need good writing skills.


Plus, you will write media releases to promote your band.

Having good maths skills is also important so you can make sure ticket sales cover venue fees, roadie hire and that your band gets paid.

Good negotiation skills are also necessary so that everyone gets a fair deal.

Education and training/entrance requirements

The road to becoming a band manager is a unique experience that has many variables. There is no formal education requirement for the career. Some universities offer degree programs in music management which combine aspects of business, recording, law and music. While not a requirement, a bachelor's degree in music management can provide valuable education through classroom work and experience in the music industry through an internship in music management. Curriculum for these programs includes courses in sound recording, entertainment law, music theory, orchestration, marketing management, financial accounting and many other areas.

Because a band manager is the public face of the band, he or she must have excellent communication and networking skills. A large part of the success one achieves in this job relies on being able to create and maintain a trusting relationship with a band or an artist. A manager needs to know when to take control of the band and make decisions, and when to step back and let the band have creative control of the direction in which they want to go.

Classical Musician
Leisure and Entertainment

Artistic or CreativeAnalytic or ScientificSkill Level 4Skill Level 5Skill Level 6

A classical musician works to very high technical levels and develops high levels of ensemble skills. Classical musicians must develop the ability to adapt to the demands of international conductors and Future Growth Static soloists. They develop a knowledge of classical, opera and ballet repertoire, and may undertake additional training at music schools overseas.

Duties and Tasks

  • Studies and rehearses repertoire and musical scores prior to performances.

  • Plays music in recitals, as an accompanist, or as a member of an orchestra, band or other musical group, from score and by memory.

  • Performs music and songs according to interpretation, direction and style of presentation, using highly developed aural skills to reproduce music.

Musician and piano


Disc Jockey or DJ
Leisure and Entertainment

Artistic or Creative
Skill Level 1Skill Level 2Skill Level 3

Disc jockeys, more commonly known as DJs, play music for audiences at live venues such as clubs, restaurants and function centres, or entertain radio audiences.  Future Growth Static

Knowledge, skills and attributes


To become a DJ, you would need:

  • a keen interest in music and knowledge of a broad range of music styles
  • a confident and outgoing personality
  • a good speaking voice
  • a good sense of timing and co-ordination
  • some understanding of technical equipment
  • the ability to ad-lib and 'think on your feet'
  • calmness under pressure.

 

Disc Jockey
(Source: Sparkz)

Duties and Tasks

As a club DJ you might:

  • play and mix records in clubs or bars, to create atmosphere or keep people dancing
  • choose music to suit your audience’s taste and the venue’s music policy
  • operate lighting and visual effects in time to the beat
  • create your own sounds by manipulating beats, using samples, adding extra music and sound effects
  • work with other performers who rap or sing over the music.

As a radio DJ or presenter, you would present a radio program in your own style. You could:

  • choose the music to be played
  • keep up an entertaining and natural flow of chat
  • interact with the audience through phone-ins, emails, texts and social media
  • keep to a very tight timing schedule
  • interview studio guests
  • operate studio equipment to play music, pre-recorded news, jingles and advertisements (known as ‘driving the desk’)
  • discuss ideas with the producer, write scripts and prepare playlists for future shows.

Many music radio DJs also perform live as club DJs.

As a mobile DJ you would provide music and atmosphere at social events such as weddings and parties. You would take your own equipment and music to each venue you play at.


Working conditions

Many music radio DJs also perform live as club DJs. As a mobile DJ you would provide music and atmosphere at social events such as weddings and parties. You would take your own equipment and music to each venue you play at.

DJs work varied or unsocial hours. As a mobile or club DJ you would work mainly in the evenings and at weekends, often until the early hours of the morning.

In radio, hours depend on when your program is on-air, whether it is live or pre-recorded, and the amount of off-air preparation you do.  Radio work is mainly in small air-conditioned studios.

As a mobile DJ you would mainly work in pubs, hotels and reception venues, and as a club DJ you would work in bars and nightclubs which can be hot and noisy.


Tools and Technologies

As a DJ you may use various formats including vinyl, CD or MP3, and a range of equipment such as turntables, mixers, microphones and amplifiers.


Education and training/entrance requirements

You can work as a DJ without formal qualifications. It is rare to be able to make a full time career as a DJ.

In order to play in venues such as clubs, employers will generally expect that you already have up to 5 years’ experience. Many club DJs work casually alongside other full time jobs.

You can work in radio without formal qualifications. A good way to get experience is to volunteer at a community radio station. They offer you experience and often conduct their own short courses or training. In radio, you may start in a junior level role in administration or production, and progress to a music presenter’s role after a number of years’ experience.

This is a specialised industry, and job opportunities as a DJ often depend on your own contacts and networks.


Ethnomusicologist
Leisure and Entertainment

Artistic or CreativeAnalytic or ScientificSkill Level 5Skill Level 6

An ethnomusicologist studies music in its cultural context and seeks to understand the relationship between musical cultures. They may work as composers, performers, lecturers or researchers. They Future Growth Static usually work within an academic institution such as a university, exploring, studying, researching and writing scholarly articles on music and musicians. Fieldwork in various regions of the world may be required, where they record music from a particular area, an ethnic group or a particular performing group.

An ethnomusicologist is someone who studies the music of the world. Ethnomusicology involves skills from a multitude of disciplines like cultural anthropology, psychology, folklore and conventional musicology.

An ethnomusicologist will look at music from within a culture instead of a purely artistic perspective, and does so by traveling to the area of interest and collecting information. Since video recordings are now considered cultural texts, ethnomusicologists can conduct their field work by creating documentaries and recording music performances of the people behind the music.

Ethnomusicologists are active in a variety of areas. As researchers, they study music from any part of the world and look at its connections to all elements of social life. As educators, they teach courses in musics of the world, popular music, the cultural study of music, and a range of more specialized classes (e.g., sacred music traditions, music and politics, disciplinary approaches and methods).

Ethnomusicologists also play a role in public culture. Together with the music communities that they study, ethnomusicologists may promote and document music traditions or participate in projects that involve cultural policy, conflict resolution, medicine, arts programming, or community music. Ethnomusicologists may work with museums, cultural festivals, recording labels, and other institutions that promote the appreciation of the world’s music.

Knowledge, skills and attributes       

An Ethnomusicologist should enjoy acquiring language skills and “really be willing to travel. Ethnomusicologists must “persevere, be determined and stubborn” yet also be “laid back because things go wrong all the time in fieldwork.”  (Source: Careers in Music)

 

Did You Know?

Digeridoos

The didgeridoo is possibly the world's oldest musical instrument and is made from limbs and tree trunks hollowed out by termites (insects) creating a wind instrument.

(Source: Australian Government)

 

Duties and Tasks

As an ethnomusicologist, you will study the way different people make music. You will spend significant time with people from various cultures and areas of the world in order to study the instruments and sounds they use in their music, along with the different activities or performances incorporated into their music-making. In your studies, you may learn to play the instruments you are working with, and you will usually document your process and findings. Additionally, you may decide to write a book, make a documentary film or somehow record your work in order to teach people about the sounds and styles of various musical cultures.

Working conditions

Ethnomusicologists are usually employed by colleges or universities, where they lecture in addition to conducting research. (Others are employed by museums, archives, institutes, record labels, etc.) They study the music of a culture within a social and political framework, spending long periods of time living immersed in the culture they study.

Working conditions for an ethnomusicologist are almost entirely in the field. They will work with various cultures and travel to a variety of countries in order to complete a study. It is important for an ethnomusicologist to be comfortable working with people who come from a completely different culture than what they are accustomed to, as well as understanding that it may be difficult to obtain information from natives who do not understand the meaning behind the study being performed.

Ethnomusicologists will often work in places that are completely different than what they’re used to. If the musicologist is observing a tribe, they may have to live in a small village or participate in traditions in order to gather information and be accepted by the people. This can be intimidating or potentially dangerous if the musicologist does not go about their studies the right way or is not willing to accept the way of life they will have to adapt in order to live with the people.

As an ethnomusicologist, you can work in a variety of environments. You may choose to work in an university setting as a professor of ethnomusicology. This career track will allow you to perform research in your area of interest and teach students about your research and the specialized knowledge of your field.

Usually, an Ethnomusicologist will teach during the university year, with occasional overseas outings to teach study abroad courses. They have regular office hours and teach a certain amount of classes during the day or the night.

However, they also spend time writing grants, conducting research and putting together travel and research plans for the periods of time when they’ll be conducting fieldwork. This can happen at anytime—during “normal” business hours and outside of them. Schedules also vary based on where the Ethnomusicologist’s main area of study is located; to communicate with people around the world, they often have to get up very early or stay up very late.

You can also choose to work in a museum setting, where you can continue to conduct research but may also be responsible for creating exhibits and special programs that help teach the public about the music of various cultures. As a museum administrator, you could work as either an archivist or curator and be responsible for collecting, preserving and presenting research and artifacts.

Another possibility is to work with a community arts organization or another community-based agency that promotes music education. With these organizations, similar to museum work, you can educate the public about the sounds and musical traditions of different cultures. You may also have the opportunity to create public programs that feature artists from a diverse range of musical cultures.

Education and training/entrance requirements

Your focused study of ethnomusicology will probably begin during graduate study. Ethnomusicologists generally hold at least a bachelor's and master's degree because of the amount of specialized knowledge this field requires. A bachelor's degree generally requires 3-4 years of schooling, and you will probably focus on fields such as cultural anthropology, musicology, folklore or cultural sociology. You may choose to specialize in the music of a specific area of the world or a particular culture during your undergraduate education.

During your master's program, you will probably take more general courses in music research techniques, along with specific courses in your area of interest. Some potential areas of interest that ethnomusicologists often study are Latin America, the Caribbean, Africa, the Middle East, Central Asia and Indonesia [and Australian Indigenous music].. Depending on the program, once you complete your master's work, you may receive your Master of Arts in Music with a specialization in musicology or your Master of Music in Ethnomusicology. You can then choose to work as an ethnomusicologist or move on to further graduate study and obtain your Doctor of Philosophy in Ethnomusicology, which involves several more years of education and field research.

 

 

Jazz Musician
Leisure and Entertainment

Artistic or CreativeAnalytic or ScientificSkill Level 1Skill Level 2Skill Level 3
Skill Level 4Skill Level 5


A jazz musician often recognised for their superior skills in improvisation. Their ensemble skills are similar to those required in chamber groups.
Musician playing the saxophone Future Growth Static

Jazz is a type of music that originated in America and often incorporates ensemble playing, syncopated rhythms and some degree of improvisation during live performances. Jazz musicians play such instruments as the guitar, drums, horns, flute, vibraphone, violin and saxophone. Some jazz musicians specialize in several of these instruments. Jazz musicians play in both big bands and smaller ensembles in a number of venues. They may spend a majority of their time either in rehearsal with their band or practicing by themselves.

Jazz musicians perform before a variety of audiences in multiple types of venues. They could play music on live TV shows as part of an ensemble and market their band through media interviews. Jazz musicians could also spend a lot time traveling to different locations for performances and tours. Professional musicians tend to arrange their own music and transpose music in order to fit their band's individual tastes and sounds.

Students interested in studying jazz as a career can expect to learn about syncopated rhythms and improvisation with different instruments. Some instruments these musicians play include the violin, saxophone, vibraphone, flute and bass. A majority of these musicians' time is spent rehearsing or playing live performances. Jazz artists can play in big ensembles or small bands. Although formal education is not required, students can better their understanding of jazz by getting a degree in music. Bachelor's degrees offer courses in harmony, rhythms and ear training.

Education and training/entrance requirements

Jazz musicians rehearse regularly and perform in a variety of venues, sometimes traveling from city to city for performances. While many jazz musicians master their craft through practice and experiential learning opportunities, they often opt for postsecondary education of some kind as well.

 

 

Music Copyist
Leisure and Entertainment

Clerical or OrganisingAnalytic or ScientificSkill Level 4Skill Level 5

 

The copyist (Concert & Stage) is one of several roles involved in the larger field of music preparation. Copyists, who proofread and organize written music for an upcoming studio session or performance, are one of the last in a chain of professionals responsible for creating the finished scores that musicians play. Future Growth Static

Their goal: to create polished and practical sheet music that can be distributed to each member of the orchestra or ensemble, as well as to important figures like the conductor and music director. Copyists prepare music for everyone from members of the musical theatr
e and film industries to record label employees and jazz ensembles.

Traditionally, the copyist receives the finished master score from an orchestrator, who received a draft, sketch, or outline of the score from the composer. However, this isn't always the case; copyists might also receive scores from transcribers, arrangers, and music directors. Once they have the score, copyists use notation software such as Sibelius and Finale to create, finalize, and bind individual parts for each musician or instrument.

While much of the job rests on aptitude with the aforementioned software, copyists must also consider various factors while producing the parts, including the location of page turns, how rests are displayed, and—more generally—how the music’s presentation will affect each musician’s experience playing it. The scores copyists produce are not used solely by performers but also by sound engineers, recording engineers, and film or music video directors.

Knowledge, skills and attributes   

Professional Skills:

  • Reading and writing music notation
  • Notation software: Sibelius, Finale, etc.
  • Transposition
  • Scoring
  • Broad knowledge of instruments
  • Networking


Interpersonal Skills

Copyists are organized and fastidious. They are dedicated and speedy, capable of receiving a request early in the morning and having it finished by the evening. Flexibility is also important, as copyists must sometimes drop the work they’ve done when a client contacts them with major changes. As this is a freelance career, cultivating networking skills is important.

      

Copyist
Copyist at work
(Source: BF Music Services)

 

Duties and Tasks

Music preparation, also called copying, is the act of taking a fully orchestrated score and transposing it for each individual instrument and voice. Rather than giving every player a sheet containing the parts for a dozen instruments, the copyist documents pages of music specific to each section and soloist. This copyist’s work provides entrance cues for the players and other signposts to ensure that musicians can properly follow the score. Depending on the length of the composition (or cue being recorded) the individual parts may be only a few staves or several pages.

As the copyist prepares the transpositions, he or she will bind the collection to be provided to the composer, conductor, music editor, and (where applicable) the music publisher.

In some cases a copyist may be asked to create sheet music based on a recording, without any written material provided. In this scenario he or she must be especially skilled in music theory and notation, and have an ear sharp enough to recognize harmonies and individual parts. This person can also be called upon to assist an arranger or orchestrator for purposes of revising existing work.

Working conditions

Copyists are usually self-employed, offering a number of related services to their clients, including proofreading, transcription, orchestration, and arrangement. Some work full-time for music preparation companies, where they perform similar duties. Copyists can also find a wealth of work in the film industry.

While a small number of copyists make this job their entire career, most are just looking to make some additional income and valuable industry connections while they work another angle; often, this means pursuing a career as a composer, conductor, or music director. Still, those who devote time and energy to their careers as copyists have the opportunity to work with higher-profile artists and composers, and are paid more for it.

Work Life

Most copyists are freelancers, combining this work with another form of music prep, a regular teaching job, or part-time work in music prep offices, where they may have more consistent hours. Still, very few copyists enjoy a regular schedule. Work comes in at all hours of the day and needs to get done with a very quick turnaround. Rates differ based on industry, but most copyists are paid by the page.

Education and training/entrance requirements

There are no formal educational requirements to work as a copyist, although a deep knowledge of music notation and composition is essential.

Unlike musicians, there are very few self-taught copyists or music engravers. An advanced degree in music theory and composition is highly recommended. A copyist must be proficient in reading and writing music for different clefs, and skilled at transposing a score for different instruments and voices. The ability to play one or more instruments is necessity—especially piano. The practice of scoring and copying compositions by hand is becoming less common (though still an important skill), so practice in the use of software like Sibelius and Finale is crucial.

Employment Opportunities

Many copyists get their start by apprenticing under a music prep person (usually a copyist, proofreader, arranger, or orchestrator), although some develop the necessary skills by working as composer's assistants. Most copyists work freelance, making it important to develop connections and build a reputation in order to create a steady stream of gigs.

A copyist who truly loves working around and preserving written music might also be interested in a career as a music librarian.

Copyists have the opportunity to work in music publishing, film and television, games, and for symphony orchestras—any medium that has the need for a composer. This is an entry-level career (with necessary education) with potential to progress as an arranger, orchestrator, or composer. Often the copyist acts as an assistant and apprentice while studying toward these advanced roles; it is common for musicians, students, and songwriters to work as part-time copyists. In film/TV recording it is typical for the copyist to face short turnarounds (a few hours) between receiving the score and producing the cue sheets. This person must be capable of quickly churning out work that is carefully edited and accurate.

 

 

Did You Know?

The state of Ludwig Van Beethoven’s immortal legacy of compositions is a terrible tragedy. His combative relationship with his copyists is well-documented; their work was often sloppy and plagued by mistakes. The hatchet job on his music has persisted, despite the efforts of historians and musicologists to return the compositions to their intended glory, and it is impossible to know how badly corrupted are the orchestrations.

Beethoven's copy
Beethoven had some problems with copyists after his longtime copyist Wenzel Schlemmer died. Here is an example!

(Source: LvB and More)

A good copyist is dedicated to the meticulous preservation and reproduction of a composer’s art. A bad copyist is like graffiti on a Picasso.

(Source: Get in Media)

 


Music Producer
Leisure and Entertainment

Clerical or OrganisingArtistic or CreativeSkill Level 1Skill Level 2Skill Level 3
Skill Level 4Skill Level 5Skill Level 6

A music producer writes, arranges, produces and records songs for other artists or for their own projects.Future Growth Static

Knowledge, skills and attributes

To become a music producer, you would need:

  • a broad knowledge of musical styles
  • well developed technical skills
  • extensive knowledge of audio recording techniques and the best way to use music studio equipment
  • the ability to use microphones and computer software to engineer quality recordings
  • an awareness of new musical trends and new audio production technology
  • creativity and flexibility
  • good project management and time management skills.

 

Music Producer
(Source: Write Opinions [was at!])

Duties and Tasks

As a music producer, you would:

  • work with musical artists in a recording studio to record new songs
  • choose songs with the artist
  • work out musical arrangements and hire musicians
  • arrange, set up and use microphones and other recording equipment
  • meet with new artists and music industry professionals to schedule work
  • generate ideas for creative approaches to recording music
  • develop budgets for music albums
  • schedule the recording and mixing studios that an artist would use
  • supervise the recording, overdubbing and mixing sessions, keeping within the decided budget
    at the major label level, work in shaping songs deemed to have commercial potential
  • work closely with artists to elicit consistent and outstanding vocal or instrumental performances
  • keep to a record label’s deadlines
  • produce music for games, film and TV, and video commercials.



Working conditions


Music producers work irregular hours. They are also likely to have to attend music industry events, concerts and performances out of hours, during evenings, and on weekends.

Music producers may be self-employed, work for a recording studio or record label, or work on the production of music for games, film and TV, and video commercials. You would usually work in a studio. You would use a wide range of specialised recording, mixing and dubbing equipment, as well as computer software.

Education and training/entrance requirements

You can work as a music producer without formal qualifications. Most producers begin the production phase of their careers after many years working their way up from junior level roles in the music industry, or in related industries such as film.

However, most producers are educated to degree level. You could undertake a Bachelor's degree in an area such as visual or creative arts, arts management or arts with a major in music studies. To get into these courses, you usually need to gain your senior secondary school certificate or equivalent.
Additional courses in music production may increase your chances of success in a very competitive environment. You will also need substantial experience in a broad range of musical styles, an in-depth understanding of the production process, and a good network of contacts in the industry.

Employment prospects for music producers are expected to remain steady.

Music producers face strong competition for jobs because there are many more people who want to work in this field than there are jobs available.

 


Musicologist
Leisure and Entertainment

Artistic or CreativeAnalytic or ScientificSkill Level 5Skill Level 6


A musicologist interprets musical history and style. They generally work as lecturers.
Future Growth Static
The academic study of the art of music is an immensely useful pursuit that can lead to a career in music publishing, music supervision, and numerous other positions in the entertainment field.

Knowledge, skills and attributes  

  • Demonstrate specialist knowledge in the area of their research in music
  • Present their research in publishable form or work towards incorporating their findings in further research
  • Proceed to the PhD if their MMus thesis has demonstrated appropriate research potential
  • Apply the experience gained in their training to the practical needs of society as appropriate.
  • An ability to initiate research projects and to formulate viable research questions;
  • A demonstrated capacity to design, conduct and report independent and original research on a closely-defined project;
  • An ability to manage time to maximise the quality of research;
  • An understanding of the major contours of international research in the research area;
  • A capacity for critical evaluation of relevant scholarly literature;
  • Well-developed and flexible problem-solving abilities appropriate to the discipline
  • The ability to analyse research data within a changing disciplinary environment;
  • The capacity to communicate effectively the results of research and scholarship by oral and written communication;
  • An understanding of and facility with scholarly conventions in the discipline area;
  • A profound respect for truth and intellectual integrity, and for the ethics of research and scholarship;
  • A capacity to co-operate with other researchers;
  • An ability to manage information effectively, including the application of computer systems and software where appropriate to the student's field of study. 

The History of Rock
(Source: Majoring in Music)

 

Duties and Tasks

Typically, the musicologist’s tasks are research, analysis, and opinion. On behalf of clients, the musicologist may participate as an expert forensic witness in copyright-infringement or sound-alike lawsuits. Other services may include consulting on matters of original music clearance, sample analysis, copyright valuation, licensing research, and verification of originality.

Working conditions

Musicologists are often consultants who work on a freelance basis. These individuals are hired to provide assistance to record labels, music publishers, film and television production companies, and media advertising agencies, among others.

Permanent or full-time employment is available with companies that create audio identification software (like Shazam), and with organizations that may need a musicologist’s expertise in mapping and cataloging songs according to specific qualities (for instance, Pandora or Gracenote). Under these circumstances, the musicologist analyzes a song to identify specific characteristics like tempo, melody, and tone, and records those findings to aid programmers in writing code that selects songs for software users based on similarities of style and genre. Additional employment opportunities include consulting with directors and music supervisors on historical and stylistic accuracy of music for films and television shows or with sound design studios that specialize in the production of original music for movies, TV, commercials, and other media.

  
Education and training/entrance requirements

A bachelor’s degree in music, ethnomusicology, musicianship, composition, or music history is expected, and should be accompanied by a master’s degree in musicology or a closely related program with a concentration in the study of music. Familiarity with multiple genres is required, and a musicologist should be as familiar with a song’s genesis as he or she is with the technical notation of the tune. Training as a musician in at least one instrument is valuable, but not required. You should be able to sight-read sheet music and instantly spot the subtle distinction between an Afro-Cuban clave and a Bo Diddley beat. Equally important is a thorough understanding of the evolution and continuing innovation of musical instruments and electronic devices used in the production and performance of recorded and live sound. Courses in copyright law, licensing, and music business are encouraged.

Employment Opportunities
  
A career as a musicologist is a lifetime devoted to the study and understanding of music, applied to serve the varied needs of multiple clients. Before you cultivate a successful career as an expert for hire, you will have to gain relevant professional experience in the music and entertainment industries. Any job in a music-related company is useful, so there really is no wrong place to start. Work at a record label, music publisher, or performing rights organization is invaluable. Most important is that you clearly define for yourself where you want your career to take you. If you are interested in business and law, seek out employment in the areas of copyright, licensing, and administration. If working with songwriters and artists is more your thing, hang around the A&R department, recording studios, and scoring stages. Those interested in pursuing a career as a musicologist must be willing to engineer their own opportunities with a bit of creativity and gumption.

 

Performing Musician Instrumentalist
Leisure and Entertainment

Artistic or CreativeSkill Level 3Skill Level 4


A performing musician/instrumentalist may play one or more instruments in recital performances. This may be in accompaniment only, or as a member of orchestras, bands or other musical groups including chamber ensembles. Future Growth Static Musicians spend a number of hours each day in private practice to prepare music for rehearsals and performance. They may record and program backing tracks and/or electronic devices that may be used in performance. Musicians may need to listen to and analyse music in either written or recorded form to build their repertoire. They also need to maintain and prepare their instruments for peak performance. They may compose and write music and lyrics, or combine and/or arrange music across a number of musical styles including classical, pop, jazz, folk, country, show music and various forms of dance music.


  
Musician playing drums

 

 

Guitar Technician
Leisure and Entertainment

Practical or MechanicalClerical or OrganisingArtistic or CreativeAnalytic or Scientific
Skill Level 1Skill Level 2Skill Level 3

The job of a guitar technician is to maintain, repair, and set up guitars and other electronic equipment, making sure everything functions properly and sounds great prior to a performance. They can acquire the needed skills and experience through vocational courses, guitar shops, or earning a college degree in music production or music technology. Guitar technicians, commonly known as guitar techs, travel on the road with bands and musical acts to set up guitars, amplifiers and effects pedals for live concerts and performances. Guitar techs ensure that both electric and acoustic guitars work properly and respond to any technical needs during a live performance. They perform sound checks before shows and repair damaged guitars and amplifiers. Future Growth Static

Guitar techs specialize in stringed instrument technology, providing support for all issues relating to electric and acoustic guitars. They might work in music shops repairing, tuning, and finishing guitars for customers. Techs may also be hired by bands to maintain and prepare instruments before, during, and after shows, including the set-up, stringing and tuning of guitars, bass guitars, pedals, cables, and amplifiers. Additional responsibilities include instrument shipment between shows and maintenance during recording sessions. Securing employment with a band may be a competitive endeavor, and travel is often required for those positions.

ANZSCO ID: 211299

 Alternative names:  guitar technicians, guitar techs

 

Guitar Technician repairing
(Source: Sonic Bids)

 

Knowledge, skills and attributes     

  • These professionals should have hearing acuity for tone and pitch and the ability to play guitar.

  • They should know how to use electronic tuning devices, as well as hand and power tools.

  • Guitar technicians should also be skilled at woodworking.

  • They must know how to play guitar and have a thorough knowledge of musical equipment, as well as a good ear for tuning and achieving the correct guitar and amplifier tones.

Guitar technicians must be proficient in not only playing the guitar, but also in the construction of the instrument. They need to know how to repair and rebuild guitars from scratch as well as stringing and tuning the instruments. They need to understand how all the parts of the guitar interact to produce clear musical notes. This knowledge can be obtained through formal education, experience, working under a knowledgeable guitar tech, or with other experienced musicians.

Guitar Technician
(Source: Music Radar)

Duties and Tasks

The typical duties of a guitar tech range from restringing guitars and performing sound checks to making guitar repairs, often on the guitar's wood or electronic wiring. The duties of a guitar tech vary depending on the quality and type of equipment the band uses. Smaller bands, for example, use equipment that needs instrument cables, whereas larger bands may use wireless systems for their guitars and amplifiers. Guitar techs may be on hand for performances to assist musicians if a need should arise.

Tools and technologies

Guitar Technician's Tools
(Source: Music Radar)

Education and training/entrance requirements

Guitar technicians need a high school diploma or equivalent, though some TAFE offer programs in guitar technology. Apprenticeships or on-the-job training may also be available.

Students should concentrate on classes such as music, band, English, shop class, and mathematics. A major part of any education should include guitar lessons. Techs often need to be able to play by ear and must be able to pick up on any nuances in an instrument's sound and tuning.

Guitar tech courses include construction, set-up, structural repair, fretwork, structural design, and finishing for acoustic and electric guitars. Any courses involving musical theory and music technology may be helpful in advancing a guitar tech's career.

Experience playing in bands, working in music shops and becoming an apprentice to a Luthier-- a person who makes stringed instruments-- are potential ways to gain the expertise with guitar functioning, repair and terminology that guitar technicians require.

Dismantled Guitar

Employment Opportunities

While many individuals who want to become guitar technicians dream of working with big-name bands, it is more realistic to work with smaller bands first to gain experience. Local bands often need extra help with many of the technical aspects of show production. Techs may be asked to perform other tasks besides guitar maintenance, such as stage set-up and breakdown, driving the tour bus, and selling merchandise. All of these activities can provide techs with invaluable knowledge regarding staging live performances.

Guitar technicians usually find jobs with bands through word of mouth. Bands or other techs often recommend guitar techs they know for upcoming gigs. Producers and road managers often maintain lists of guitar techs that they can trust to be reliable and experienced.

 

Vocalist
Leisure and Entertainment


Artistic or Creative
Skill Level 1Skill Level 2Skill Level 3

A vocalist may work solo or with an accompanist, or permanently or casually with bands, ensembles, orchestras or in concert opera. Vocalists develop a repertoire and many specialise in a particular style, or work on stage, radio and television. They may entertain as soloists, perform in a group and/or play an instrument. Vocalists need to train and develop their voice and capacity to sing, as well as develop presentation skills. They need to understand Future Growth Static music and be able to work with bands and orchestras.

Responsible for reading, interpreting, and singing lyrics during a performance or recording session. May work in an ensemble, as a solo artist, in a choir, as a backup singer, in operas, on Broadway, or other musical theatre.

ANZSCO ID: 211214

Alternative names: Singer

Specialisations: Band Singer, Chorister, Commercial Singer (Advertising), Jazz Singer, Opera Singer, Pop Singer, Rock Singer.

Knowledge, skills and attributes   

To be successful as a Singer, you should always strive to expand your repertoire and be prepared to work long hours and travel frequently. Outstanding Singers demonstrate superb creative intelligence, and great interpersonal, and time management skills.       

  • Talent and singing skills.
  • Degree in Music or similar might be advantageous.
  • Vocal training and ability to play instruments recommended.
  • Experience in live performances or shows would be advantageous.
  • Pleasant disposition and ability to connect with audiences.
  • Willingness to work long hours and travel frequently.
  • A professional appearance and positive attitude.
  • Passion for the craft
  • Voice care & health
  • A desire to improve
  • Time commitment
  • Enunciation
  • Controlled breathing
  • Restraint
  • Your own signature style

The Voice

The Voice

Duties and Tasks

The Singer's responsibilities include memorizing lyrics, rehearsing and performing songs, recording in the studio, attending photoshoots and making promotional videos, as well as collaborating with a team of creatives. You should be well-versed in a range of styles and have the ability to connect with various audiences through rhythm and melody.

  • Learning, memorizing, recording, rehearsing, and performing songs.
  • Collaborating with managers, movie producers, and other musicians.
  • Fine-tuning craft through singing exercises and vocal training.
  • Maintaining the appropriate physical appearance and stamina needed for performances.
  • Acquiring new musical skills, e.g., playing different instruments.
  • Learning dance routines, acting, as well as new genres of music.
  • Attending photo shoots, promotional events, and maintaining an active presence on social media.
  • Showing up on time for recording sessions and gigs.
  • Networking with other artists and interacting with fans and followers.
  • Sing lyrics during performances with the goal of entertaining audiences.
  • Convey emotion including joy, sadness, revenge, heartbreak, or conflict in songs.
  • Sing different styles, including pop, jazz, rhythm and blues, rock, or country.
  • Arrange instruments to accompany vocals, such as piano or saxophone.
  • Apply knowledge of harmony, melody, rhythm, and voice production during numbers.
  • Rehearse with ensemble or director of production.
  • Train or prep voice using different melodies and ranges.
  • Project voice so all of audience can hear.
  • Observe director's cues on stage.
  • Study and memorize music.
  • Provide backup vocals.
  • Record demos of songs in studios.
  • Work with producers to fine-tune songs or albums.
  • Collaborate with a manager or agent who handles administrative details, finds work, and negotiates contracts.
  • Research roles.
  • Collaborate with creative directors to improve the sound and style.
  • Go on tour with band or independently to promote music.
  • Perform at festivals, theatrical productions, concerts, coffee shops, bars, or other venues.
  • Give voice lessons to students interested in learning the art of singing.
  • Write lyrics to songs.
  • Commission songwriters to write lyrics.

 

Grand Finale 2021: Keith Urban sings his smash hit - One Too Many with P!nk
https://youtu.be/MfyMQHBmsxA

 

 

Working conditions

Singers read, memorize, and perform music to live audiences or in the studio. They may receive formal education and training, or rely purely on raw talent and hard work. Singers also collaborate with other artists and increase their employment prospects by learning to play instruments, act, and dance.

Musicians and singers perform in settings such as concert halls, arenas, and clubs. Musicians and singers who give recitals or perform in nightclubs travel frequently and may tour nationally or internationally. Some spend time in recording studios.

Rehearsals and recording sessions are commonly held during business hours, but live performances are most often at night and on weekends.

Many musicians and singers find only part-time or intermittent work and may have long periods of unemployment between jobs. The stress of constantly looking for work leads many to accept permanent full-time jobs in other occupations while working part time as a musician or singer.

Education and training/entrance requirements

There are no postsecondary education requirements for musicians or singers interested in performing popular music. However, many performers of classical music and opera have at least a bachelor’s degree.

Musicians and singers need extensive training and regular practice to acquire the skills and knowledge necessary to interpret music at a professional level. They typically begin singing or learning to play an instrument by taking lessons and classes when they are at a young age. In addition, they must practice often to develop their talent and technique.

Musicians and singers interested in performing classical music may seek further training through music camps and fellowships. These programs provide participants with classes, lessons, and performance opportunities.

 

Session Musician
Leisure and Entertainment

Artistic or CreativeSkill Level 3Skill Level 4Skill Level 5

A session musician comes on board to play a musical instrument for a specified period of time—in the studio or on stage—but is not a permanent part of the band. These specialists may play for one song during a recording session, or they may join a band or artist for an entire tour. Future Growth Static

Session musicians are for-hire musicians who perform with solo artists and bands without officially being a part of the group. Session musicians play on recordings, play in live shows, or both. Although some give and take often happens during a recording, the general understanding is that session musicians play what they are asked to play, even when they may have musical reservations about the direction. Affability in these circumstances is key.

In general, session players don't write the music. They either play what others have written—the common practice in session work—or they improvise a performance, often without a chord chart to guide them. For pop, rap, and soul session players, that's an essential part of the job. Sometimes an artist or producer will provide direction. At other times, they want the session musician to come up with something that retains sensitivity to the existing or intended musical direction.

Beyond working to back artists in the record industry, session musicians may also be hired to play music for commercial jingles, TV, film, radio, and streaming platforms.

ANZSCO ID: 211213

Alternative names: Backing Musician

Knowledge, skills and attributes      

Having a reputation for being professional, skilled, easy to work with, and reliable can help a session musician get steady work. A reliable session musician can be a key part of getting an album done on time and can be a lifesaver on the road if a last-minute replacement for a band member is needed.     

Session Musician
(Source: The Balance Careers)

Duties and Tasks

This job generally requires the ability to do the following work:

  • Sing or play an instrument
  • Audition
  • Learn quickly
  • Rehearse and practice regularly
  • Perform live
  • Travel
  • Self-promote

In addition to being skilled musicians, session musicians need to be versatile. While it’s great to be really good at one type of music, chances for work are increased greatly for those that can adapt to a variety of genres. It’s also important to get along with many different types of people. Those who hire session musicians keep going back to those who can play anything and fit in with anybody. This also increases the likelihood of getting longer gigs, such as tours.

Self-promotion also is a big part of the job. Session musicians get out and talk to as many other professionals in the music business as possible to get their names out there. By establishing a good reputation with a lot of people, work opportunities can grow by word of mouth.

  
Working conditions

Session musicians regularly work in studios and they often go out on tour with other musicians as well. Some session musicians are employed by the studios themselves and primarily work in one geographic location. Many session musicians are independent contractors who find work by word of mouth. Sometimes a studio will recommend specific session musicians to people coming in to record, or artists will recommend those they've worked with in the past.

Most session musicians are independent contractors who establish relationships with other musicians and studio engineers over time. The actual work typically takes place in a recording studio and sometimes can be monotonous. For example, one piece of music may be played repeatedly for the best possible recording. Session musicians may be hired to perform live with established bands or even tour with them.

Hours can be unpredictable. Most session musicians work part-time, and studio time can be scheduled at any time on any day of the week.

In exchange for guaranteed flat rates of pay, session musicians often sign away their future rights to the recordings that they perform on. That means that if a session musician plays on an album that goes platinum, they don't get royalties or profits from that recording.

The same goes for live shows: Session musicians are usually paid their set rate of pay whether the show lost money for the band or the show was a major money maker.

Education and training/entrance requirements

There are no specific degree requirements or certifications necessary to get a job as a session musician, but it’s a profession that requires extensive knowledge and training.

Session musicians are most marketable if they play a variety of styles of music and are familiar with a range of historical influences. Degrees in music can help build this base of knowledge.
Training: Professional musicians typically begin taking formal lessons of some sort in childhood. Accomplished professionals may take lessons to learn or refine new techniques or to learn new instruments.

Employment Opportunities

Session musicians are experts with the instruments they play, but being successful in getting work requires some soft skills.

Promotional skills: The musicians who get out and meet as many other musicians and studio engineers as possible put themselves in the best positions to get hired for session work.
 
Flexibility: Work can present itself on short notice, so musicians need to make themselves available on short notice. Those who do the hiring call session musicians who never, or rarely, say no.
  
Discipline: Being a good session musician requires expert-level skill as a musician and an ability to pick up new pieces quickly. This requires constant and regular practice.
  
People skills: In addition to marketing themselves, session musicians also work with many different types of people. This requires an ability to get along with people and adapt to different types of personalities and demands.


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Sports Coach

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Umpire/Referee

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Actor

Choreographer

Music Director

Stunt Performer

Entertainer

theatrical costume maker and designer

Diver

Set Designer

Sports Development Officer

Horse Riding Instructor

Stage Manager

Cinema or Theatre Manager

Prop & Scenery Maker

Outdoor Adventure Guide

Artist

Aerobics Instructor

Dancer

Fitness Instructor

Sports Coach

Karate Instructor

Fisher

Sportsperson

Musician

Umpire/Referee

Composer

Jockey

Actor

Choreographer

Music Director

Stunt Performer

Entertainer

theatrical costume maker and designer

Diver

Set Designer

Sports Development Officer

Horse Riding Instructor

Stage Manager

Cinema or Theatre Manager

Prop & Scenery Maker

Outdoor Adventure Guide

Artist

Aerobics Instructor

Dancer

Fitness Instructor

Sports Coach

Karate Instructor

Fisher

Sportsperson

Musician

Umpire/Referee

Composer

Jockey

Actor

Choreographer

Music Director

Stunt Performer

Entertainer

theatrical costume maker and designer

Diver

Set Designer

Sports Development Officer

Horse Riding Instructor

Stage Manager

Cinema or Theatre Manager

Prop & Scenery Maker

Outdoor Adventure Guide

Artist

Aerobics Instructor

Dancer

Fitness Instructor

Sports Coach

Karate Instructor

Fisher

Sportsperson

Musician

Umpire/Referee

Composer

Jockey

Actor

Choreographer

Music Director

Stunt Performer

Entertainer

theatrical costume maker and designer

Diver

Set Designer

Sports Development Officer

Horse Riding Instructor

Stage Manager

Cinema or Theatre Manager

Prop & Scenery Maker

Outdoor Adventure Guide

Artist

Aerobics Instructor

Dancer

Fitness Instructor

Sports Coach

Karate Instructor

Fisher

Sportsperson

Musician

Umpire/Referee

Composer

Jockey

Actor

Choreographer

Music Director

Stunt Performer

Entertainer

theatrical costume maker and designer

Diver

Set Designer

Sports Development Officer

Horse Riding Instructor

Stage Manager

Cinema or Theatre Manager

Prop & Scenery Maker

Outdoor Adventure Guide

Artist

Aerobics Instructor

Dancer

Fitness Instructor

Sports Coach

Karate Instructor

Fisher

Sportsperson

Musician

Umpire/Referee

Composer

Jockey

Actor

Choreographer

Music Director

Stunt Performer

Entertainer

theatrical costume maker and designer

Diver

Set Designer

Sports Development Officer

Horse Riding Instructor

Stage Manager

Cinema or Theatre Manager

Prop & Scenery Maker

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